STATES AND CAPITAL
Presidents of India
Prime Ministers of India
National Animal of India
Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four 'big cats' of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India.
National Anthem of India
National anthem can be described as a patriotic musical composition of a country, which reminds and praises the history, traditions and struggles of its people. At the same time, it has to be recognized as the official national song, either by the nation's government or by convention through use by the people. The national anthem of India is 'Jana-gana-mana', composed originally in Bengali, by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India, in its Hindi version, by the Constituent Assembly, on 24th January 1950.
National Bird of India
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty, grace, pride and mysticism, it is a multihued, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. Much in contrast to the natural phenomenon, the male specie of the bird is much more strikingly stunning than its female counterpart. The male bird, peacock, flaunts a gleaming blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. It is capable of extending its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.
National Calendar of India
The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India. It is used in India besides the Gregorian calendar by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, calendars and communication document issued by control of Government of India. The Saka calendar, often referred as the Hindu calendar is originally named as Saka Samvat. It is also used for the calculation days of religious significance in the Hindu Religion in the country. You will always find a Saka calendar alongside a Gregorian Calender in an Indian Home.
National Flag of India
The National Flag of India, also called the 'Tiranga', was adopted during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly of the country. The meeting was held on the 22nd July 1947, twenty-four days prior to India's independence from the British (which took place on 15th August 1947). Based on the flag of the Indian National Congress, which was designed by Pingali Venkayya, the flag is also the war flag Indian Army, hoisted daily on military installations. The heraldic description of Indian National Flag is Party per fess Saffron and Vert on a fess Argent a "Chakra" Azure.
National Flower of India
Lotus, botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India. The Lotus plant is basically an aquatic plant with wide floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers which grow only in shallow waters. The Lotus plant has floating leaves and flowers. It has long aerated stems.. The lotus flowers are extremely beautiful with an overlapping proportional motif of petals. It is considered to be a sacred flower and occupies unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. This flower has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
fathers of modern India enshrine the lotus in the Constitution as the National Flower.
National Fruit of India
Mango, cultivated in India since times immemorial, is regarded as the National Fruit of the country. Described as the "Food of the Gods", in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India, except the hilly areas, but is mainly available in the summer season only.. There are more than 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes. The common names used in context of the fruit are, Mangot, Manga, and Mangou. The eact origin of the term 'mango' is not known. It is believed to have come from the Portuguese term 'manga', which is probably from Malayalam 'manga'.
National Song of India
Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in 'Anandamatha' amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan 'Vande Mataram' or 'Hail to the Mother (land)!'
National Tree of India
The national tree of India, banyan is a very huge structure, long and deep roots and branches symbolize the country's unity. One can find banyan trees in throughout the nation. The huge sized tree acts as a shield, protects from hot sun. This is the reason why the tree is planted near homes, temples, villages and roadsides. In the rural parts of the country, banyan tree is considered as the focal point of the Panchayats and the gathering place for village councils and meetings. The tree is also considered sacred by the Hindus of India. With high medicinal value, banyan is often used as a herb to treat and cure many diseases. Given below is the description of banyan, the national tree of India.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly held its first sitting on the 9th December, 1946. It reassembled on the 14th August, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The proposed Constitution had been outlined by various committees of the Assembly like:
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
Indian Government have provided six basic rights to every citizen India. So, as to provide a democratic environment for the peopel of India to live in. Here, we are describing each fundamental right in detail to help you in understanding our constitution.
The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India. These fundamental duties are defined as:
? To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
? To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
? To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
? To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
? To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
? To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
? To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures